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Here you will find AP EAPCET Agriculture and Pharmacy Syllabus 2023.



1.1 Origin, development and scope of Botany
1.2. Classification of plant kingdom
1.3. Branches of Botany: Morphology, Cytology, Embryology, Palynology, Taxonomy, Physiology, Ecology, Palaeobotany, Genetics, Phytogeography, Phycology, Mycology, Lichenology, Bryology, Pteriodology, Microbiology, Bacteriology, Virology
1.4. Parts of angiospermic plant


a) Vegetative morphology:

2.1) Root: Root system; Types, Functions, Modification of roots (Velamen roots, Photosynthetic roots, Respiratory roots, Parasitic roots, Storage roots and nodular roots).
2.2) Stem: characteristics and functions of the stem; Modifications of stem: Aerial: Tendril, Thorn, Hook, Phylloclade, Tuberous stem and Bulbil; Sub-aerial: Runner, Stolon, Sucker & Offset, Underground: Rhizome, Corm, Stem tuber & Bulb
2.3) Leaf: Parts of Leaf, Types and Functions of leaves,Venation, Phyllotaxy, Leaf modifications: - tendrils, spines, scale leaves, phyllode, reproductive & trap leaves. b) Reproductive morphology:
2.4) Inflorescence: Introduction, Types of Inflorescence - Racemose, Cymose and Special Types 2.5) Flower: Parts of a typical flower: Structure, Sex distribution and symmetry of flower, position of gynoecium. Detailed description of flower: Perianth, Calyx, Corolla, aestivation, Androecium – Parts, fixation and dehiscence of anther, length of stamens, union of stamens, Gynoecium – number of carpels, fusion of carples, ovary – number of locules ,  placentation, types of styles, stigma.


3.1) Introduction – Sporophytic and Gametophytic stages
3.2) Structure of Anther; Microsporogenesis, Structure of a pollen grain and development of male gametophyte
3.3) Ovule – Structure and Types; megasporogenesis - development and structure of embryosac
3.4) Pollination: Types of pollination, self and cross-pollination, contrivances for cross pollination and self pollination, agents of cross pollination.
3.5) Fertilization – Process, Post - fertilization changes; Seed structure (Dicot & Monocot) and seed germination (epigeal, hypogeal & vivipary)
3.6) Fruits: Classification; False fruits and true fruits - Simple fruits (fleshy fruits – berry, pome, pepo, hesperidium,drupe; Dry fruits – dehiscent- legume, septicidal c apsule, septifragal capsule, loculicidal capsule; Indehiscent fruits – caryopsis, cypsela, nut; schizocarpic – lomentum, schizocarp); Aggregate and Multiple fruits


4.1) Introduction – Alpha and Omega taxonomy; Aspects of taxonomy – Identification – Flora, herbaria,botanical gardens (RBG – Kew, IBG – Kolkata, NBG – Lucknow); Nomenclature, Classification – Types, Units and a brief account of Bentham & Hooker’s system. Study of the following families:
4.2) Malvaceae
4.3) Fabaceae
4.4) Solanaceae
4.5) Liliaceae


5.1) Introduction, Techniques of Cell Biology – microscopy (light, electron, fluorescent, phase contrast, SEM, TEM – only uses), Separation techniques (centrifugation, electrophoresis)
5.2) Ultrastructure of plant cell (Eukaryotic cell - Structure of cell wall and cell membrane, Protoplasm, cytoplasm, Plastids, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, ribosomes, golgi complex, lysosomes, peroxisomes, glyoxysomes, vacuoles and Nucleus).
5.3) Chromosomes - Introduction, structure (light microscopic study), classification, functions and nucleosome model
5.4)Nucleic acids
5.5) Cell Division : Cell Cycle, Mitosis and Meiosis


6.1) Tissues – Types (Meristematic and Permanent )structure and functions.
6.2) Internal structure of Dicot root (Primary) and Monocot root.
6.3) Internal structure of Dicot stem (Primary) and Monocotstem.
6.4) Internal structure of leaf (Dicot and Monocot) 6.5) Secondary growth in dicot stem.


7.1) Introduction
7.2) Plant communities – Hydrophytes, Mesophytes and Xerophytes; Ecological adaptations (Morphological & Anatomical) of Hydrophytes and Xerophytes.


8.1) Introduction
8.2) Mendel’s Principles – Monohybrid and Dihybrid cross, Back cross and Test cross, Concept of probability inrelation to Genetics.
8.3) Linkage and crossing over.
8.4) Mutations.


9.1) Introduction
9.2) Spirogyra – distribution and habitat, thallus structure, cell structure, reproduction– vegetative, asexual, sexual, life cycle
9.3) Rhizopus – distribution and habitat, structure of mycelium and hypha, reproduction – vegetative, asexual, sexual, life cycle,sexuality in Rhizopus.
9.4) Funaria: distribution and habitat, external morphology of the gametophore, anatomy of the stem, reproduction – vegetative and sexual, sporophyte, protonema, life cycle.
9.5) Pteris: distribution and habitat, Morphology of the sporophyte, anatomy of the Rhizome, vegetative, asexual and sexual reproduction, Embryo, life cycle.
9.6) Cycas: distribution and habitat, Morphology of the sporophyte, anatomy of the coralloid root and leaflet, Reproduction, Embryo, Seed, life cycle.


10.1) Introduction and importance of microbiology.
10.2) Bacteria – Discovery, Distribution, sizes, shapes, Gram staining (in brief), structure of cell, nutrition, reproduction–asexual (binary fission), sexual – Conjugation (F+ and F-only), transformation and transduction (only definition, discoverer and example for transformation and transduction), economic importance– beneficial (Agriculture, Industry, Medicine, Biotechnology), harmful (spoilage of food, plants, human and animal diseases).
10.3) Viruses – historical account, types, structure (TMV and T4 details), general account of sizes, shapes, replication (Lytic and Lysogenic cycles). Plant diseases caused by viruses, transmission of viruses and control of viral diseases.


11.1) Introduction A. WATER RELATIONS OF PLANTS:
11.2) Absorption of water – Introduction, soil water, water potential, Diffusion, Imbibition, Osmosis, Plasmolysis, Mechanism of absorption of water.
11.3) Ascent of Sap: Definition, Cohesion – Tension theory
11.4) Transpiration : Definition, SPAC and types of transpiration, mechanism of stomatal movement, factors, significance, Antitranspirants.


11.5) Introduction, types of nutrition (symbiosis, parasitism, chemotrophism, a utotrophism)’
11.6) Mineral nutrition – Introduction, soil as source, criteria of essentiality, importance of macro and micro elements, ion absorption – passive and active (carrier concept), Biofertilizers


11.7) Enzymes – introduction, properties, IUB classification, mechanism of enzyme action (lock & key theory),enzyme inhibition

11.8) Photosynthesis - Definition, pigments, structural organization of chloroplast, Mechanism of Photosynthesis – Light reactions - Hill reaction, Emerson’s Enhancement Effect, PSI and PSII, electron transport and proton translocation, photophosphorylation, Carbon assimilation -C3 , C4 pathways, Factors, Photorespiration, Blackman’s law.

11.9) Respiration – definition, Types, Mechanism of 2 aerobic and anaerobic respiration, Alcoholic fermen tation, Respiratory quotient (R.Q).

11.10) Nitrogen metabolism: Nitrogen cycle, Biological nitrogen fixation (Symbiotic, Non- symb iotic); Genetic code, Biosynthesis of Proteins.

11.11) Plant growth & its regulators:- Growth curve; introduction to growth regulators, physiological effects and applications-Auxins, Gibber ellins, Cytokinins, Abscisic acid and Ethylene; Photoperiodism and Vernalization.


12.1) Crop improvement – Introduction , aims and ob jectives of plant breeding; methods – definition, methodology, advantages and achievements of Introduction, Selection (Mass, Pureline, Clonal), Hybridization, Heterosis, Mutation breeding and Polyploidy breeding. Biotechnology:
12.2) Introduction, Definition, Scope and applications of Biotechnology
12.3) Genetic Engineering - Recombinant DNA Technology, Genetically Modified Crops, Transgenic plants, Biosafety issues, applications of Genetic Engineering
12.4) Tissue Culture –techniques and Applications.
12.5) Single cell protein 12.6) Mushroom Cultivation: Morphology and types of mushrooms; Food value; cultivation of white button mushrooms.


I. Zoology – The Basics:- Nature and scope of Zoology, Zoology, the meaning, Areas of study under zoology, relationship between zoology and other sciences, basic principles of classification, need for classification, nomenclature, levels of classification or systematic hierarchy, species concept, outline classification of the kingdom animalia.

II. General characters and classifications Invertebrate Phyla (upto the level of classes): Protozoa-general characters and brief account of classification, Porifera – general characters & classification, Cnidaria – general characters and classification, Platyhelminthes – general characters and classification, Nematoda – general characters and classification, Annelida – general characters and classification, Arthropoda – general characters and classification, Mollusca – general characters and classification, Echinodermata – general characters and classification.

III. Animal Organization:- Introduction, Multicellularity Diploblastic, triplo blastic organization, Symmetry – types and characteristic features of each symmetry with examples i.e. Asymmetry, Radial Symmetry, Biradial symmetry Bilateral symmetry, Definition of Coelome, definitions and examples of acoelomates, pseudocoelomates and eucoelomates. The structure of a generalized animal cell (brief account only), Animal Tissues (brief account) epithelial tissues, connective tissue proper, supporting tissue, fluid tissue, muscular tissue and nervous tissue.

IV. Locomotion and Reproduction in Protozoa : Locomotion – Introduction, locomotory organelles in Protozoans (pseudopodia, cilia, flagella) giving examples, Locomotion in Protozoans – amoeboid movement, Sol-gel theory, Ciliary and Flagellar movements synchronal and metachronal movements in Paramecium, Effective & Recovery strokes, Reproduction in Protozoa, Types of Reproduction

(i) Asexual reproduction types –

Transverse binary fission in paramecium, longitudinal binary fission in Euglena (ii) Sexual reproducti on in Protozoa Conjugation in Vorticella and its significance.

V. Animal Associations :-

Definition and examples of Mutualism, Symbiosis, Commensalism, Parasitism, Structure, life cycles, diseases and preventive measures of the following parasites (1) Entamoeba histolytica (structure, life cycle pathogenecity, prevention), (2) Plasmodium vivax (structure, life cycle pathogenecity, prevention), (3) Taenia solium (External characters body wall, organs in mature proglottid, fertilization Life- cycle-Pathogenecity and prevention) (4) Wuchereria bancrofti (structure, life cycle, pathogenecity, prevention).

VI. Phylum Annelida :-

Pheritema posthuma – (1) Introduction, importance, different genera, species, habit & habitat. External characters – structureand arrangement of setae, (2) body wall, coelom, wall of alimentary canal and locomotion, Pheretima (3) digestive system, Respiratory system, Pheritema : (4) Blood vascular system, (5) Excretory system, (6) Nervous system and receptor organs (7) Reproductive system, (8) copulation,cocoon formation & development, Regeneration, economic importance.

VII. Phylum : Arthropoda :-

(1) Arthropoda – Introduction – Evolutionary characters of Arthropoda,
(2) Cockroach, Periplaneta americana – external features, body wall, Endoskeleton, stink glands, co elom, fat bodies, locomotion, Cockroach – Digestive system, Respiratory system, Nervous system, sense organs, structure of ommatidium,
(3) Mouth parts of insects, cockroach, Mosquito, Housefly, Butterfly, (4) Economic importance of insects (i) useful insects (ii) harmful insects.

VIII. Man & Biosphere :-

(1) Elementary aspects of ecosystem, Abiotic factors - light, temperature, water and their biological effects on organisms, Biotic factors: producers, consumers and decomposers, (2) Functional aspects of ecosystem, food chains, food web, ecological pyramids, Lake as an example of fresh water ecosystem, population ecology – Population density, growth and growth curves, (3) Biodiversity, conservation of biodiversity and wild life conservation.

IX. Phylum – Chordata :-

(1) Characteristics of Chordata, Ancestry of Chordates, Outline classification of Chordata, Theories of origin of Chordata,
(2) General features of Sub-phylum Urochordata & Sub-phylum Cephalochordata, (3) Sub-phylum Vertebrata: Pisces - General Characters, Classification with examples, Amphibia : General characters, Classification with examples.

X. Reptilia – Aves & Mammalia :-

(1) Reptilia: General Characters, Classification - Chelonia, Rhynocephalia, Squamata and Crocodilia with typical examples, Identification of poisonous and non poisonous snakes, poison apparatus, toxicity of snake venom and treatment of snake bite including first aid. (2) Aves: Distinctive features, Classification, differences between Ratitae and carinatae with typical examples. (3) Mammalia : Distinctive features of Prototheria, Metatheria & Eutheria with examples.

XI. Rabbit – Functional Anatomy-I (Digestive System, Respiratory System & Circulatory System) :

(1) Classification and External characters of Rabbit, (2) Digestive System, Alimentary Canal, Digestive Glands, Nutrition & Digestion, Process of Digestion, Role of Vitamins and Mineral in Nutrition, Nutritional requirements in relation to balanced diet (as subtopic), (3) Respiratory system, Mechanism of breathing and transport of gases. (4) Circulatory System, Structure of heart, Function of heart, Arterial system, Venous System, Blood Clotting.

XII. Rabbit-Functional Anatomy-II (Musclo-Skeletal System, Excretory System, Reproductive System) : Musculo Skeletal System, Ultra Structure of Muscle fibre, sliding filament theory, Elementary idea of Axial skeleton and appendicular skeleton: Types of joints of Rabbit. Excretory System, Excretory Organs, Structure of nephron in mammals, Formation and Composition of Urine, Micturition. Reproductive system: Male Reproductive system, Female Reproductive system, Copulation, Fertilization and Development, Placenta. Gestation period.

XIII. Rabbit – Functional Anatomy-III (Nervous System, Endocrine Glands and their role in Human beings, Immunology) : Nervous System, Central, Peripheral and autonomous nervous systems, Cranial and Spinal nerves and their functions. Generation and Propagation of Nerve Impulse, Endocrine System: Endocrine glands and Role of Hormones. Endocrine disorders in Human beings. Immunology : Types of Immunity, Organs of Immune system, Cells of Immune systems, Soluble mediators of Immunity. Antigens, Mechanism of Humoral and cell mediated Immunities, Immunological disorders: AIDS, Hepatitis.

XIV. Genetics-Introduction:-

(1) Multiple alleles and Blood groups, ABO Blood groups, Rh antigens, Sex determination, Sex Chromosom es,  Heterogametic sex determination, Sex determination in Drosophila, Sex determination and Sexual differe ntiation in human being, Haplodiploidy in honey bee, Effects of environment on sex determination, Hormonal control of sex determination, Sex linked inheritance, Sex linkage in drosophila, Genes on the sex chromosomes, Sex linked characters in human beings, X-linked characters, Y-linked characters, X-Y linked characters, Sex limited characters, Sex influenced characters.
(2) Gene Expression and regulation, Genetic Materials, Function of Genes, Gene regulation in prokaryotes, Gene expression in eukaryotes, concept s of Gene action one gene one poly peptide concept only.
(3) Basic concepts of animal breeding, System of breeding, Heterosis, Progeny Test, Cloning, Transgenic animals. Genome and Human genome project, Gene Mapping, D.N.A. finger printing, An elementary idea of gene therapy.

XV. Organic Evolution :-

Evolutionary concepts and origin of life. Experimental verification of chemical origin of life. Theories of Evolution : Lamarckism or Inheritance of acquired characters, Natural Selection (Darwinism), Sexual selection, Artificial selection. Mutation theory of evolution, Synthetic theory of evolution or Neo-Dar winism. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium and evolutionary process – Natural selection, Genetic load, Genetic Drift, Changes in Genotype frequencies and Speciation.

XVI. Applied Biology :-

(1) Aquaculture: List of animals of aquaculture importance, Fisheries – fish culture and rearing methods. (2) Poultry : Introduction to Poultry, Poultry farming, Poultry diseases. (3) Biotechnology : Recombinant DNA technology, Industrial use of micro organisms and DNA Technology, Vaccines, Enzymes, hormones, Interf erons, Monoclonal anti bodies. (4) Cell cycle and i ts regulation, cancer biology, stem cells. (5) Bio medical technology : X-ray radiography, Definitions of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Electro Cardiography (ECG), Electro Encephalography (EEG), Transplantation, ELISA (Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay).


I. MEASUREMENTS, UNITS AND DIMENSIONS : Introduction- units and Dimensions, Accuracy, precision of measuring instruments, Constant errors, systematic errors, environmental errors (errors due to external causes). Error due to imperfection, Random errors, Gross Errors, Absolute Errors, Mean absolute errors, Relative errors, percentage errors, Errors due to addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, powers of observed quantities, Significant figures, Fundamental and derived physical quantities / System of Units, definition of units in SI, Rules for writing units in SI, Derived units in SI, Multiple and submultiples of SI units, Dimensional formulae and dimensional equations, dimensional constants and dimensionless quantities. Principle of homogeneity of dimensions, Conversion of one system of units in to another, to check correctness of an equation, to derive the relationship between different physical quantities.


Classification of Physical quantities, geometricalrepresentation of vectors, addition of vectors, equality of vectors, Laws of vector addition, subtraction of vectors, Resolution of a vector into components, null vector, unit vector in Cartesian co-ordinate system, position vector and its magnitude, Parallelogram law of addition of vectors, Derivation of expression for the magnitude and the direction of resultant vector, Special cases, Triangle law and p olygon law of vectors, triangle law of addition of vectors, polygon law of addition of vectors, concept of relative velocity, application to relative motion of a boat in a river, motion of a boat across a river, shortest path, shortest time, Multiplication of vector with a scalar, product of two vectors, scalar product or dot product of two vectors, properties of scalar product, examples of scalar product, work done and energy, vector product of two vectors, properties of vector product of two vectors, examples of vector product of two vectors - torque, angular velocity and angular momentum.

III. Kinematics :-

Introduction : Motion in a straight line – displacement, speed and velocity, Uniform and non-uniform motion, average speed and instantaneous velocity, Uniformly accelerated motion, velocity-time and position-time graphs, equations for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment), acceleration due to gravity, equations of motion of a freely falling body, Equations of motion of an object vertically projected upwards from the ground, Maximum height (H), Time of ascent, time of descent, velocity of the body on returning to the point of projection, Vertical projection of an object from a tower, Projectiles –oblique projection from ground, equation of trajectory, maximum height, time of ascent, time of flight, horizontal range, two angles of projection for the same range, velocity of projection at any instant, horizontal projection from the top of a tower, equation of trajectory, time of descent, ran ge, velocity of the projectile (at any instant).

IV. Dynamics :-

Introduction- Newton’s laws of motion, applications of Newton’s laws. Objects suspended by strings, At wood machine, blocks placed in contact with each other on frictionless horizontal surface, apparent weight in a lift, Impulse, law of conservation of linear momentum, conservation of linear momentum during collision, w ork, power, energy, KE&PE definition and derivation for both, Relation between KE and Linear momentum, conservative and non-conservative forces, work-energy theorem, Law of conservation of energy in case of freely falling body and vertically projected body.


Introduction – Elastic and inelastic collisions, Collisions in one dimension (Elastic collision only), body at rest, bodies moving in same direction and opposite directions, Co-efficient of restitution, definition, equation for height attained for freely falling body after number of rebounds on floor.

VI. CENTRE OF MASS (CM): Introduction- Centre of mass, difference between centre of mass and centre of gravity, co-ordinates of centre of mass, centre of mass of particles along a line, centre of mass of system of particles in a plane, center of mass of system of particles in space, motion of centre of mass (Velocity and acceleration of CM), characteristics of centre of mass, laws of motion of the centre of mass, velocity and acceleration, explosion.


Introduction - cause of friction, advantages of friction, disadvantages of friction, methods of reducing friction, types of friction, staticfriction, kinetic (or) dynamic friction, rolling friction, Distinction between static and dynamic friction. Normal reaction, laws of friction, static friction, kinetic friction or Dynamic friction, Rolling friction, Angle of friction, motion of body on rough horizontal plane, motion of bodies on an inclined plane, Body at rest on the plane-Angle of repose-when the body is just ready to slide, when the body is sliding down. Motion of a body on smooth and rough inclined plane, body sliding down the plane, body sliding up the plane, pushing and pulling of a lawn roller. A lawn roller on a horizontal surface pulled by an inclined force, a roller on horizontal surface pushed by an inclined force.


Introduction, uniform circular motion, concept of angular displacement, angular velocity and angular a cceleration, relation between linear velocity and angular velocity, centripetal acceleration and force, torque, couple (concepts, units, dimensional formula and examples), Vector representation of torque, Moment of Inertia(MI), definition, units, parallel and per pendicular axes theorems. Expressions for MI of a thin rod, uniform disc, rectangular lamina, solid and hollow spheres, circular ring and cylinder (no derivations needed), angular momentum, relation between angular momentum and torque, law of conservation of angular momentum with examples, Motion in vertical circle.


Introduction- Basic forces in nature, Nature of gravity, law of universal gravitation, Relation between Universal gravitational constant (G) and acceleration due to gravity (g), variation of ‘g’ with altitude, depth, latitude and shape of the earth, characteristics of gravitational force, limitations of Newton’s third law, gravitati onal field, field strength, properties of gravitational fields, Origin of black holes, Chandrashekar limit, neutron star, Frames of reference, Inertial and Non- Inertial frames, Inertial and Gravitational mass & relation between them, Principle of equivalence, Escape and Orbital velocities, definition, derivation of expressions and relation between them, Geostationary satellites and their uses.


Introduction- simple harmonic motion examples, SHM explanation by reference circle, expression for displacement, amplitude, velocity, acceleration, time period, frequency, phase, initial phase (epoch)- Simple pendulum, expression for time period, loaded spring, expression for time period, force constant, PE and KE of simple harmonic oscillator, Total Energy of Simple Harmonic Oscillator, Law of conservation of energy in the case of a simple pendulum.


Introduction- Elasticity and plasticity, stress, strain, Hook’s law, Moduli of elasticity, Poisson’s ratio, definition and its limit, Behavior of a wire under gradually increasing load- Elastic fatigue, strain energy - experimental determination of Young’s modulus of wire.


Introduction - surface tension, definition - Examples, molecular theory of surface tension. Surface energy, Angle of contact, capillarity-examples in daily life, Determination of surface tension by capillary rise method – theory and experiment. Effect of temperature on surface tension, excess pressure in liquid drops and soap bubbles.


Introduction - Principle of Buoyancy- pressure in afluid - Streamline flow – Bernoulli’s theorem - equation with derivation – applications-aerodynamic lift, motion of a spinning ball, Illustrations of Bernoulli’s theorem. Viscosity – explanation, coefficient of viscosity, effect of temperature on viscosity, Poiseuille’s equation, Motion of objects through fluids. Stokes formula, net force on the object, terminal velocity.


Introduction- concept of temperature, Measurement of temperature, Fahrenheit, Centigrade scales of temperature, their relation (only formulae)- Different types of therm ometers (brief theoretical description). Expansion of solids: Introduction -Vibration of atoms in a solid, PE curve, Anharmonicity of vibrations, explanation for expansion in solids. Coefficients of linear, areal and cubical expansion, definitions, Expressions & Relation between these coefficients of expansions, change of density with temperature, examples in daily life. Expansion of Liquids: Introduction- coefficients of real and apparent expansion of liquids, relation between them with derivation, Determination of coefficient of apparent expansion of liquids by specific gravity bottle method, Anomalous expansion of water, its significance in nature. Expansion of gases: Introduction - volume and pressure coefficients of gases, relation between them and derivation. Determination of volume coefficient-Regnault’s method. Determination of pressure coefficient-Jolly’s bulb method. Kelvin scale of temperature, Boyle’s and Charle’s laws. Ideal gas e quation, derivation, significance of Universal gas constant.


Introduction – Quasi static and cyclic process, reversible and irreversible processes, Heat and Temperature, Zeroeth law of Thermodynamics, definition of Calorie, Joule’s law and mechanical equivalent of heat, Internal energy, First law of thermodynamics, equation and explanation. Heat capacity, specific heat, experimental determination of specific heat by the method of mixtures. Specific heats of a gas (Cp and Cv), External work done by a gas during its expansion. Relation between C p and C v derivation, Isothermal and adiabatic processes. Relation between P, V and T in these processes. Expression for work done in Isothermal process (no derivation), expression of work done in adiabatic process (no derivation). Heat engines and refrigerators (only qualitative treatment). Three phases of matter, Triple point – Triple point of water. Latent heat, Determination of latent heat of vaporization of water, Second law of thermodynamics – dif ferent statements.


Introduction - conduction of heat, coefficient of thermal conductivity, convection- Type of convections, Nature and properties of Thermal radiation, Prevost’s theory of heat exchange - emission power and absorptive power - Black body radiation, Kirchoff’s law and its applications – Stefan’s law – Newton’s law of cooling.


Longitudinal and transverse waves, Equation for a progressive wave, principle of superposition of waves, reflection of waves, Formation of waves on a stretched string, laws of vibrating strings, experimental verification by Sonometer, Sound: Characteristics of sound, speed of sound in solids, liquids and gases (only formula to be given), Forced Vibrations, Free Vibrations, Resonance with examples, standing waves in Organ Pipes, Open Pipes, Closed Pipes, Fundamental frequency-Overtones, Harmonics, definition and explanation, Beats definition and its importance. Doppler Effect, Definition, derivation of relation for apparent frequency of a sound note emitted by a source for the cases a) only source is moving, b) only listener is moving, c) both source and listener are moving. Applications and limitations of Doppler Effect- Echoes, Absorption of sound waves, Reverberation – Reverberation Time, Fundamentals of building Acoustics – Statement of Sabine’s Law.

XVIII. OPTICS: Nature of Light, Newton’s corpuscular Theory, Huygen’s Wave Theory- Electromagnetic spectrum. Huygen’s Explanation of Reflection and Refraction of plane waves at a plane surface. Refraction through prism, Derivation of Refractive index of material of prism for minimum deviation, critical angle, Total Internal Reflection, Relation between Critical angle and Refractive Index, application of total internal reflection to Optical fibers. Defects in Images: Spherical and Chromatic aberrations and reducing these defects, Different methods (qualitative treatment). Optical Instruments: Microscope, Telescope, Formula for magnification of Microscope, Astronomical and Terrestrial Telescopes. Construction of Ramsden’s and Huygen’s eye pieces with ray diagrams. Dispersion of light, dispersive power, pure and impure spectra, condition for obtaining pure spectrum, different kinds of spectra– Emission spectra, Line, Band and continuous spectra, absorption spectra, Fraunhofer lines and their significance.


Interference – condition for interference, Young’s double slit experiment – Derivation for Intensity and fringe width – Uses of interference, Diffraction: Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction (Qualitative only). Polarisation: Concepts of Polarisation. Plane Polarisation of Light by Reflection, Refraction and Double Refraction (Polaroids).


Coulomb’s Inverse Square Law, Definition of Magnetic Field, Magnetic Lines of Force- Uniform and Non – Uniform Magnetic Fields. Couple acting on a bar magnet placed in a uniform magnetic field, Definition of magnetic moment of magnet. Magnetic Induction due to abar magnet on axial and equatorial lines. Superposition of magnetic fields, Tangent Law, Deflection Magnetometer. Comparison of Magnetic Moments in Tan A, Tan B positions by equal distance method and Null Method, Verification of Inverse Square Law. Vibration Magnetometer- Principle and Description, Experimental determination of M and BH (earth’s horizontal component) using Vibration Magnetometer. Types of magnetic materials – Para, Dia, and Ferro Magnetism– Definition and properties.


Charges – conservation of charge and additive property of charges. Coulomb’s Law : Permittivity of Free Space and Permittivity of Medium, Force between two point charges. Force due to multiple charges – Principle of superposition with examples. Electric field, Electric lines of force, their properties, Electricfield intensity definition, electric intensity due to isolated charge and due to multiple charges. Electrostatic Potential, Definition of Electrostatic Potential in an electric field- Potential due to single charge and multiple charges, Electrostatic potential energy- Relation between electrostatic potential and electric intensity. Electric Flux & Gauss Law: Electric Flux Definition, Gauss Law-Statement of Gauss Law, Application of Gauss Law to find electric intensity and electrostatic Potential due to continuous charge distribution of Infinite Long wire, Infinite Plane Sheet and Spherical Shell. Capacitance, Definition of Electrical Capacity of a Conductor, Capacitance, Dielectric constant, Definition
of Condenser, its uses, Parallel plate Condenser, Formula for Capacitance of Parallel Plate Condenser, Dielectric, Dielectric Strength, Effect of dielectric on capacitance of capacitor. Capacitors in series and in parallel: derivation of the equivalent capacitance for the above cases. Energy stored in a Condenser, Effect of dielectric on Energy of Condenser, Types of capacitors, their uses.


Electric current – Flow of Electric charges in a metallic conductor, Drift velocity and mobility, Relation between electric current and drift velocity. Ohm’s Law: Statement, Ohmic and Non-Ohmic elements with examples, Conductance, Specific resistance, Variation of resistivity with temperature, Variation of Resistance with temperature, Thermistor. E.M.F. of Cell – Internal resistance and back E.M.F., Difference between EMF of a Cell and potential difference. Electrical energy, Power, definition of kWh. Kirchhoff’s laws: Statement of Kirchhoff’s voltage law, Kirchhoff’s current law, their application to Wheatstone bridge, condition for balancing, Meter bridge, Determination of resistance of a conductor using meter bridge. Principle of Potentiometer determination of internal resistance and E.M.F. of a cell using potentiometer. Series and parallel combination of cells – Derivation of equivalent EMF for the above cases.


Introduction- Seebeck effect, Peltier and Thomson effects and their coefficients. Variation of themo E MF with temperature, Neutral and Inversion Temperatures. Applications of Thermo- Couple.


Oersted’s Experiment, Biot – Savart Law, Ampere’s Law, Magnetic field near a long straight wire and magnetic field at the Center of a circular coil carrying current (wit h derivations). Field on the axis of circular coil carrying current (expression only). Tangent Galvanometer (TG), Principle and working, Definition of Reduction Factor. Force on a moving charge in a magnetic field, Force on a current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic field, Force between two long straight parallel conductors carrying current, Definition of Ampere, Fleming’s Left Hand Rule, Current loop as a magnetic dipole, force and Torque on Current loop in an uniform magnetic field, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron. Principle, Construction and working of Moving Coil Galvanometer (MCG), Converting MCG into ammeter and voltmeter, comparison of MCG with TG. Electromagnetic induction, Magnetic Flux, Induced EMF, Faraday’s and Lenz’s Laws. Fleming’s Right Hand Rule, Self Inductance, Mutual Inductance, Principle of Transform r. Growth & decay of current in L-R circuit with DC source, Growth and decay of charge in R.C. Circuit connected to DC source, Equations for charge on condenser – Current in inductor, Time constant, Definition and its significance. Alternating current (A.C), Introduction – Instantaneous, maximum and RMS value of A.C. current, Alternating Voltage applied to apure resistor, pure inductor, pure capacitor, AC through C-R, L-R and L-C-R series circuits.


Discovery of electron, e/m of electron by Thomson’s method, Charge of the electron by Millikan’s Oil Drop Method (Principle Only). Photo Electric Effect : Definition, Laws of Photoelectric Emission, Einstein’s explanation of Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s Photo electric equation and its experimental verification by Milikan’s method. Photo Electric Cells, working and uses. X- Rays- Production of X- Rays, Coolidge tube, X- ray spectrum, Continuous X- Ray Spectra, Characteristic X – Ray Spectra, Moseley’s Law and its importance. Compton effect (Statement only), Dual nature of matter, de Broglie’s hypothesis (concept only).


Composition and size of nucleus, mass defect and binding energy and their relation (Explanation with examples). Natural radio activity – alpha, beta and gamma radiations and their properties, radio active decay law, half life and average life of a radio active substance, Nuclear forces – Their Properties, Artificial Transmutation of elements, Discovery of Neutron, Radio I sotopes and their uses. Nuclear Fission, Chain Reaction, Principle and Working of a Nuclear Reactor, Nuclear Radiation Hazards, Protective shielding, Types of reactors – Breeder Reactor, Power Reactor and their uses. Nuclear Fusion, Energy of Sun and stars, Carbon – Nitrogen cycle and proton – proton cycle, Elementary particles.


Introduction- Intrinsic and extrinsic semi conductors (n and p type). Junction diode, p -n junction, depletion layer and barrier potential, Forward and Reverse bias, and Current -voltage characteristics of junction diode, p –n Diode as half wave and full wave rectifier (only qualitative treatment), Zener Diode as a voltage regulator. Transistor Function of Emitter, Base and Collector, p-n-p and n-p-n Transistors, Biasing of Transistors, Current –Voltage Characteristics of Transistor in CE configuration, Transistor as common emitter amplifier (qualitative treatment), Logic Gates -OR, AND , NOT, NOR, NAND


Elements of communication systems (block diagram only), Bandwidth of signals (Speech, TV and digital d ata), bandwidth of Transmission medium. Propagation of el ectromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, Modulation, Need for modulation.


I. ATOMIC STRUCTURE:- Characteristics of electron, proton and neutron. R utherford model of an atom. Nature of electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s quantum theory. Explanation of photo electric effect. Dual behavior of electromagnetic radiation. Features of atomic spectra – Emission and absorption spectra. Characteristics of hydrogen spectrum. Bohr’s theory of the structure of atom – Postulates. Bohr’s theory of hydrogen atom, Energy of an electron. Bohr’s explanation of spectral lines. Failure of Bohr’s theory. Wave-par ticle nature of electron. De Broglie’s hypothesis, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Im portant features of the quantum mechanical model of an atom – Meaning and significance of wave function. Quantum numbers, concept of orbitals, definition of atomic orbital in terms of quantum numbers - shapes of s, p and d orbitals, Aufbau principle, Pauli’s exclusion principle and H und’s rule of maximum multiplicity. Electronic conf iguration of atoms. Explanation of stability of half filled and comple
ely filled orbitals.


Concept of grouping the elements in accordance to their properties – Mendeleef’s Periodic Table. Periodic law – Mendeleef’s classification of elements. Significance of atomic number and electronic configuration as the basis for periodic classification. Classification of elements into s, p, d, f blocks and their main characteristics. Periodic trends in physical and chemical properties of elements: Atomic radii, Ionic radii, Inert gas radii, Ionization energy, Electron gain energy, Electronegativity and Valency. Variation of oxidation states, Electropositivity – Metallic and Non-metallic nature, Nature of Oxides, Diagonal relationship. Variation of atomic radii in inner transition elements.


Kossel -Lewis approach to chemical bonding. Factors favorable for the formation of ionic bond, energy changes in ionic bond formation. Crystal lattice energy - calculation of lattice energy – Born - Haber cycle. Crystal structure of sodium chloride and Caesium chloride, Coordination number. Properties of ionic compounds. Covalent bond - VSEPR theory – Lewis representation of covalent compounds, Formal charge, geometry of simple molecules. The valence bond approach for the formation of covalent bonds. Directional properties of covalent bond. Pro perties of covalent bond. Hybridization - different types of hybridization involving s, p and d orbitals. Shapes of simple covalent molecules. Definition of coordinate covalent bond with examples. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules. Symmetry and energy of sigma an d pi bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals. Molecular orbital energy diagram of H 2, N2and O2. Concept of hydrogen bond and its types with examples. Effect of hydrogen bonding on properties of compounds.


Laws of chemical combination – Principles and examples. Molar mass, concept of equivalent weight with examples. Percentage composition of compounds and calculation of empirical and molecular formulae of compounds. Chemical reactions and Stoichiometric equations. Oxidation number concept. Balancing of redox reactions by ion electron method and oxidation number method. Types of redox reactions. Applications of redox reactions in titrimetric quantitative analysis. Redox reaction s and electrode processes.


Graham’s law of diffusion, Dalton’s law of partial pressures, Avogadro’s law. Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, ideal gas equation. Kinetic molecular theory of gases. Kinetic gas equation (No derivation) - deduction of gas laws. Distribution of molecular velocities and types of molecular velocities – Average, Root Mean Square and Most Probable Velocity. Behavior of real gases, deviation from ideal behaviour, compres sibility factor versus pressure diagrams of real gases. Conditions for liquification of gases, critical temperature. Liquid state – Properties of liquids in terms of intermolecular attractions. Vap our pressure, viscosity and surface tension (qualitative idea only, no mathematical derivation)


Classification of solutions, molarity, normality, molality and mole fraction. Dilute solutions, vapor pressure, Raoult’s law, Limitations of Raoult’s law. Colligative properties – (i) Relative lowering of vapor pressure (ii) Elevation of B. P (iii) Depression in freezing point and their relation to molar mass. Osmosis and osmotic pressure - theory of dilute solutions. Determination of molar mass using colligative properties: Ostwald’s dynamic method, Cottrell’s method, Rast’s method and Berkeley Hartley’s method. Abnormal molecular mass.


Conductance in electrolytic solutions. Specific, Equivalent and Molar conductance - variation of cond uctance with concentration, Kohlrausch’s law and its application to calculation of equivalent conductance of weak electrolytes. Electrolytes and non-electrolytes, redox reactions. Electrolysis. Some typical examples of electrolysis viz; Fused Sodium hydroxide, Fused sodium chloride, Brine solution, Fused Magnesium chloride. Faraday’s laws of electrolysis and applications. Galvanic and voltaic cells. Rep resentation and notation of electrochemical cells with and without salt bridge. Standard hydrogen electrode, electrode potentials, electrochemical series. EMF of the cell, Nernst equation and its application to calculate EMF of electrochemical cells. Primary cell - dry cell / Lechlanche cell. Secondary cells - Fuel cells: Hydrogen - Oxygen fuel cell and Hydrocarbon - Oxygen fuel cell. Corrosion: mechanism, factors to promote corrosion and prevention of corrosion, passivity. Lead accumulator.

VIII. SOLID STATE: Classification of solids based on different binding forces as molecular, ionic, covalent, and metallic solids. Elementary treatment of metallic bond. Metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids. Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices. Seven crystal systems, Bravais lattices. Bragg’s equation, X-ray study of crystal structure, Bragg’s method. Calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per cubic unit cell. Point defects - Schottky and Frenkel defects. Electrical and magnetic properties.


Concepts of reaction rate, factors affecting reacti on rates. Rate law, Units of rate constant. Order and molecularity. Methods of determination of order of a reaction. Integrated rate equations and half lives for zero and first order reaction Collision theory of reaction rates (elementary ideas). Concept of activation energy.

Equilibrium:- Equilibrium in physical and chemical processes, dynamic nature of equilibrium, Law of mass action, equilibrium constant. Factors affecting equilibrium. Relation between Kp and Kc Le Chatelier’s principle, application to industrial synthesis of (i) Ammonia

(ii) Sulphur trioxide.

Acids and Bases:-

Lowry-Bronsted acid base theory. Lewis theory, limitation of Lewis theory, Ionic equilibrium. Ioni zation of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization. Ionic product of water. Concept of pH. Hydrolysis of salts (element ary idea), hydrolysis constant, buffer solutions.Solubility product and common ion effect with illustrative examples.


Concept of system, types of systems, surroundings, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions. First law of thermodynamics - Internal energy and Enthalpy. Heat capacity and Specific heat, Exothermic and Endothermic reactions, measurement of “E and “H, Enthalpy of bond dissociation, combustion, neutralization, formation, atomization, sublimation, phase transition,ionization and dilution. Thermochemical equations. Hess’s law of constant heat summation. Driving force for a spontaneous process. Thermodynamic representation of criteria of spontaneity in terms of entropy, entropy as a state function. Gibbs free energy, Gibbs free energy change for spontaneous, non spontaneous and equilibrium processes.


Adsorption: Physical and chemical adsorption, adsorption of gases on solids, factors affecting it - pressure (Langmuir and Freundlich Isotherms) and temperature. Catalysis - types of catalysis, autocatalysis Colloidal state: colloidal solutions, classification of colloidal solutions, protective colloids and Gold number, Properties of colloids - Tyndall effect, Brownian movement. Coagulation. Emulsions, classification of emulsions, micelles, cleansing action of soap.


Position of hydrogen in periodic table. Occurrence, isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen - Preparation, properties and uses including as a fuel. Reactions of hydrogen leading to ionic, molecular and non - stoichiometric hydrides. Physical and Chemical properties of water and heavy water. Hardness of water and its removal Hydrogen peroxide – methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties- oxidation, reduction, decomposition, disproportion ation and addition reactions. Detection, structure and uses of Hydrogen Peroxide.


General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, Anomalous properties of the first element in each group. Diagonal relationship. Trends in properties like ionization enthalpy, atomic and ionicradii, reactivity with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and water, uses of alkali and alkaline earth metals.Preparation, properties and uses of sodium hydroxide, salts of oxo acids, sodium carbonate, sodium hydrogen carbonate and sodium chloride. Preparation and uses of Calcium oxide, Calcium carbonate and Calcium sulphate. Biological importance of Na, K, Mg and Ca.


General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous properties of first element of the group. Boron- Physical and chemical properties and uses of boron. Borax, boric acid and boron hydrides. Preparation, structure and properties of diborane. Aluminum: uses, reactions with acids and alkalis. Potash alum.


General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence. Variation of properties and oxidation states, trends in chemical reactivity. Anomalous behavior of first element. Carbon - catenation, allotropic forms, physical and chemical properties and uses. Similarities between carbon and silicon, uses of oxides of carbon. Important compounds of Silicon - Silicon dioxide, uses of Silicon tetrachloride, silicones, silicates and zeolites (Elementary Ideas). Manufacture and uses of Producer gas and Water gas.


Occurrence - physical states of nitrogen and phosphorous, allotropy, catenation, electronic configuration, oxidation states. General characteristics and structure of hydrides. General characteristics of oxides and halides. Oxoacids of nitrogen and phosphorous. Preparation and uses of nitric acid and Ammonia. Super phosphate of lime.


Occurrence, electronic configuration, oxidation states, physical states of oxygen and sulphur, their structure and allotropy. General characteristics of hydrides, oxides and halides. Structural aspects of oxy acids bof chalcogens. Preparation, properties and uses of ozone and sodium thiosulphate. Industrial process f or manufacture of sulphuric acid.


Occurrence, electronic configuration and oxidation states. Physical states of halogens. Ionization Potential, Electro negativity, Electron affinity, bond energies, chemical reactivity, oxidizing power of fluorine and chlorine. Structural aspects of oxy acids of chlorine. Preparation, properties and uses of fluorine, chlorine and bleaching powder. Structures of Inter halogen compounds.

XIX. GROUP 18 ELEMENTS: (ZERO GROUP ELEMENTS): General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and isolation. Trends in physical and chemical properties and uses. Structures of Xenon oxides and halides.


General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals. G eneral trends in properties of first row transition elements - metallic character, ionization energy, variable oxidation states, atomic and ionic radii, color, catalytic property, magnetic property, interstitial compounds and alloy formation.

Lanthanides:- Electronic configuration, variable oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanide contraction. Coordination compounds: Introduction, ligands, coordination number, Werne r’s theory of coordination compounds, shapes of coordination compounds - Valence bond theory, IUPAC nomenclature of mono nuclear coordination compounds, bonding, isomerism, EAN rule, importance of coordination compounds in qualitative analysis, extraction of metals and biological systems (chromo proteins, haemoglobin, chlorophyll: structures only).


Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, reduction by chemical and Electrolytic methods and refining. Occurrence and principles of extraction of Copper, Zinc, Iron and Silver. Molten electrolysis processes of Aluminium, Magnesium and Sodium.


Definition of terms, types of Pollution, Air, Water and Soil pollution. Oxides of carbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen and sulphur, chloro fluoro carbons. Chemical reactions in atmosphere, smogs, major atmosp heric pollutants, acid rain. Ozone and its reactions, effects of depletion of ozone layer. Green house effect and global warming. Pollution due to industrial wastes. Green chemistry as an alternative tool for reducing pollution with two examples.


Introduction, methods of purification, qualitative and quantitative analysis of organic compounds. Classification and IUPAC nome nclature of organic compounds. Homolytic and heterolytic fission of covalent bond. Types of regents – electrophiles, nucleophiles and free radicals with examples. Reactive intermediates. Types of organic reactions - substitution, addition, elimination and rearrangement reactions w ith examples. Inductive effect, electromeric effect, resonance and hyperconjugation.


Classification of hydrocarbons. Alkanes- Nomenclature, isomerism. Methods of preparation nof ethane. Conformations of ethane. Physical properties, chemical reactions in cluding free radical mechanism of halogenation, Com bustion and Pyrolysis of ethane.

Cycloalkanes : Preparation and properties of cyclohexane.

Alkenes- Nomenclature, structure of ethene, geometrical i somerism and physical properties of geometrical isomers. Ethylene: Methods of preparation, physical properties and chemical reactions - addition of hydrogen, halogen, water, hydrogen halides (Markovnikov’s addition and peroxide effect), Ozonolysis and oxidation. Mechanism of electrophilic addition.


Nomenclature, structure of triple bond. Acetylene - Methods of preparation, Physical properties and chemical reactions: acidic character of acetylene, addition reaction of - hydrogen, halogens, hy drogen halides and water.Aromatic hydrocarbons: Introduction, IUPAC nomenclature; Benzene: resonance and aromaticity, Chemical properties: Mechanism of electrophilic substitution - Nitration, Sulphonation, Halogenation, Friedel Craft’s alkylation and Acylation. Directive influence of functional group in mono substituted benzene. Carcinogenicity and toxicity of aromatic compounds.


Optical activity-discovery, determination using a polarimeter, specific rotation. Asymmetric carbon, elements of symmetry. Chirality - Chiral objects, Chiral molecules. Compounds containing one chiral centre, enantiomers, Fischer projections and Configuration. D,L- and R,S- nomenclature, racemic forms, racemisation and resolution. Compounds cont aining two chiral centers, diastereomers, meso form. Importance of Stereochemistry.



Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, Preparation, physical and chemical properties of ethylchloride and chloroform. Mechanism of SN1, and SN2 reactions.


Nature of C-X bond, Preparation and Substitution reactions of chlorobenzene (directive influence of halogen for mono substituted compounds only).


Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of ethyl alcohol. Mechanism of dehydration. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols. Uses of methanol and ethanol.

Phenols:- Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties of phenol, acidic nature of phenol. Electrophilic substitution reactions and uses of phenols.

Ethers:- Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of diethyl ether.


Nomenclature, and nature of carbonyl group. Methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties and uses of acetaldehyde and acetone. Mechanism of nucleophilic addition. Aldol and crossed aldol condens ation, Cannizzaro reaction.


Nomenclature and acidity of carboxylic acids. Methods of preparation, Physical and chemical properties and uses of acetic acid.


Nitrobenzene: Preparation, properties and uses.

Amines:- Nomenclature and classification of amines. Structure, methods of pre paration, physical and chemical properties and uses of Aniline. Identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Diazonium salts:- Preparation, chemical reactions and importance of diazonium salts in synthetic organic chemistry. Azo dyes and their uses. Cyanides and Is ocyanides.

XXXII. POLYMERS & BIOMOLECULES:- Classification of polymers. Addition and condensation polymerization. Copolymerization. Natural rubber, vulcanization of rubber, synthetic rubber – Neoprene and Buna- S. Molecular weights of polymers - Number average and weight average molecular weights (definition only) Biopolymers – C arbohydrates and Proteins. Biodegradable polymers and some commercially important polymers – Polythene, nylon, polyesters and bakelite.

Carbohydrates: Importance. Classification into (a) aldoses and ket oses and (b) mono (glucose and fructose), oligo (sucrose, lactose, maltose) and polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen). Structure determination and properties of glucose. Structural features of oligo and polysaccharides mentioned above.

Proteins:- Elementary idea of Alpha amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides and proteins. Primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures of P roteins (Qualitative idea only). Denaturation of proteins; enzymes.

Vitamins:- Classification and functions of vitamins in biosystems.

Nucleic Acids: Types of nucleic acids, primary building blocks of nucleic acids. Chemical composition of DN A & RNA, Primary structure of DNA and its double helix. Replication. Transcription, protein synthesis and genetic code.

Lipids:- Classification, structure and functions of lipids in biosystems.

Hormones: Classification, structural features and functions of hormones in biosystems.


Uses of Chemicals in medicine: Analgesics

(i) Narcotics: morphine, codeine. (ii) Non-narcotics : Aspirin, Ibuprofen. Antipyretics: Analgin, phenacetin and paracetamol.

Tranquilizers: Barbituric acid, Luminal, seconal, valium.

Antiseptics:Chloroxylenol, bithional;


Antimicrobials: lysozyme, lactic acid, hydrochloric acid in stomach.

Antibiotics: pencillin, chloramphenicol, sulphadiazine.

Chemicals in food preservatives: sodium benzoate, potassium metabisulphite.

Artificial sweetening agents:Aspartame, alitame, sucralose.

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